An introduction to the ancient Greek alphabet.

The ancient Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters, many of which are unfamiliar to most people today, although a few may be recognised from mathematical notation.

The following table is intended to help familiarise you with the Greek words used in the Lexicon.

Uppercase Lowercase Name English equivalent Pronunciation
Α α alpha, αλφα a as in ‘calm’
Β β beta, βήτα b as English
Γ γ gamma, γαμμα g as in ‘got’
Δ δ delta, δελτα d as English
Ε ε epsilon, εψιλον e as in ‘pet’
Ζ ζ zeta, ζητα z as in ‘wisdom’
Η η eta, ητα ê as in ‘hair’
Θ θ theta, θητα th as in ‘thigh’
Ι ι iota, ιωτα i as in ‘hit’
Κ κ kappa, καππα k as English
Λ λ lambda, λαμδα l as English
Μ μ mu, μυ m as English
Ν ν nu, νυ n as English
Ξ ξ xi, ξι x as English
Ο ο omicron, ομικρον o as in ‘hot’
Π π pi, πι p as English
Ρ ρ rho, ρω r as English
Σ σ ς * sigma, σιγμα s as in ‘sing’
Τ τ tau, ταυ t as English
Υ υ upsilon, υψιλον u as in ‘mew’
Φ φ phi, φι ph (f) as in ‘physics’
Χ χ chi, χι ch as in ‘loch
Ψ ψ psi, ψι ps as in ‘lapse’
Ω ω omega, ωμεγα ô as in ‘saw

* letter sigma Σ has two different lowercase forms, σ and ςσ is used at the start of, and in the main body of, a word – ς is only used at the conclusion of a word.